The skeleton of an adult human consists of 207 bones. It is composed of 270 bones at birth, which decreases to 206 bones by adulthood after some bones have fused together. It consists of 80 bones in the axial skeleton (28 in skull and 52 in torso) and 126 bones in the appendicular skeleton (32 x 2 in upper extremities including both arms and 31 x 2 in lower extremities including both legs). Many small and often variable bones, such as some sesamoid bones, are not included in this count.


Major Bones of the Body - This video is designed to be a helpful memorization tool for the major bones of the human body. I made it for my senior project.

The figure of 206 bones is commonly repeated, but does have some peculiarities in its method of counting. It is taken of an adult human—the number of bones in the skeleton changes with age, as multiple bones fuse,and a process which typically reaches completion in the third decade of life. In addition, the bones of the skull and face are counted as separate bones, despite being fused naturally. Some reliable sesamoid bones such as the pisiform are counted, while others, such as the hallux sesamoids, are not.

Individuals may have more or fewer bones than this owing to anatomical variations. The most common variations include additional (i.e. supernumerary) cervical ribs or lumbar vertebrae. Sesamoid bone counts also may vary among individuals.


The human Skeleton. Learning the names for the bones you will find ...
The human Skeleton. Learning the names for the bones you will find ...

Vertebral column

  • The spinal vertebrae of the vertebral column (33 bones)
    • The cervical vertebrae (7)
    • The thoracic vertebrae (12)
    • The lumbar vertebrae (5)
    • The sacral vertebrae (5 at birth, later fused into one)
    • The coccygeal vertebrae (4 at birth, later fused into one)


  • The sternum (1)
  • The ribs (24, in 12 pairs), including:
    • (3) pairs (8th,9th and 10th pairs), also known as false ribs are attached anteriorly to each other and to the 7th rib by cartilages and synovial joints
    • (2) pairs of floating ribs (11th and 12th pairs), have no anterior attachment.


  • The skull (1)
    • The cranial bones (8)
      • The occipital bone
      • The parietal bones (2)
      • The frontal bone
      • The temporal bones (2)
      • The sphenoid bone (sometimes counted as facial)
      • The ethmoid bone (sometimes counted as facial)
    • The facial bones (15)
      • The nasal bones (2)
      • The maxillae (upper jaw) (2)
      • The lacrimal bone (2)
      • The zygomatic bone (2)
      • The palatine bone (2)
      • The inferior nasal concha (2)
      • The vomer
      • The mandible (lower jaw)
      • The hyoid bone (sometimes not counted as facial)
  • In the middle ears (3 x 2=6)
    • malleus (2)
    • incus (2)
    • stapes (2)


  • The clavicle (2)
  • The scapula (2)


  • The bones of the upper arm (6 bones, 3 each side)
    • The humerus
    • The ulna
    • The radius
  • The hand (54 bones, 27 in each hand)
    • The carpals
      • scaphoid bone (2)
      • lunate bone (2)
      • triquetrum bone (2)
      • pisiform bone (2)
      • trapezium (2)
      • trapezoid bone (2)
      • capitate bone (2)
      • hamate bone (2)
    • The metacarpals (5 × 2=10)
    • The phalanges of the hand
      • proximal phalanges (5 × 2=10)
      • intermediate phalanges (4 × 2=8)
      • distal phalanges (5 × 2=10)

Ubey S

  • The coxal bone, or hip bones, has three regions: ilium, ischium, and pubis (2)
    • The sacrum and the coccyx attach to the two hip bones to form the pelvis
  • The femur
  • The patella or knee cap
  • The tibia
  • The fibula
  • The foot (52 bones in total, 26 per foot)
    • The tarsus
      • calcaneus or heel bone (2)
      • talus (2)
      • navicular bone (2)
      • medial cuneiform bone (2)
      • intermediate cuneiform bone (2)
      • lateral cuneiform bone (2)
      • cuboid bone (2)
    • The metatarsals (10)
    • The phalanges of the foot
      • proximal phalanges (5 × 2=10)
      • intermediate phalanges (4 x 2= 8)
      • distal phalanges (5 x 2=10)
      • The sesamoid bones


Irregular bone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Irregular bone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • The 206 Bones of the Human Body

Human Body Bones Names | Human Anatomy Body Picture
Human Body Bones Names | Human Anatomy Body Picture
Foot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Foot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaHuman Body Anatomy Bones | humananatomybody.info

Human Body Anatomy Bones | humananatomybody.infoLove this drawing using the correct names for the bones of the ...

Love this drawing using the correct names for the bones of the ...Humans are born with nearly 300 bones, but most adults have around ...

Humans are born with nearly 300 bones, but most adults have around ...

List Of Bones Of The Human Skeleton – How Many ...


Code42 is an American software company that develops and markets the CrashPlan backup software and services suite. It was founded in 2001 as an IT consultancy. Code42 started a project to create a Facebook-like desktop application but ended up focusing on the online storage element, and released CrashPlan in 2007. The company raised $52.5 million in 2012.

CrashPlan is offered to consumers in a freemium model. Backing up to Code42's servers requires a monthly subscription; an enterprise edition is offered as well. CrashPlan gets positive reviews for its pricing, feature-set and user interface, but large initial backups were reported as slow.


CrashPlan Features Tour: Explore Online Backup Features - Welcome to CrashPlan! This video tours the CrashPlan user interface, showing how you can check the user settings, change what files are backed up, and ...

Code42 was founded as an IT consulting company in 2001, by Matthew Dornquast, Brian Bispala, and Mitch Coopet. The company's name honors Douglas Adams, who authored Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy and had died that year. In the book, the number 42 is the answer to "life, the universe and everything".

Some of Code42's first projects included a redesign of Sun Country Airlines’ website in 2002, a project for the retailer Target Corporation, and the ticket booking engine for Midwest Airlines. Income from the IT services business was used to fund product ideas for six years. In 2006, the company planned to create a Facebook-like desktop application, but the project became too large and impractical. Code42 focused on the online storage element of the application, creating CrashPlan in 2007.

In June 2011, Code42 acquired a Minneapolis-based mobile development company, Recursive Awesome LLC, to support its software on mobile devices. Recursive’s employees were moved to its Minneapolis headquarters and later a 10,000 square-foot expansion to its offices was built. In 2012, Code42 raised $52.5 million in funding. The funding was the first distribution from a $100 million pool established in 2011 by Accel Partners to fund Big Data companies.

In mid 2015 former Eloqua CEO Joe Payne succeeded co-founder Matthew Dornquast as CEO.


Changes To The Administration Console In Version 4.1.4 - Code42 ...
Changes To The Administration Console In Version 4.1.4 - Code42 ...

As of April 2011, 80% of Code42 Software’s revenue comes from business customers. Most of the remainder comes from consumers and a small portion from service provider partners. Code42 has been profitable each year since it was founded. It grew from $1.4 million in revenue in 2008 to $11.46 million in 2010 and $18.5 million in 2011. As of 2012, the company had backed up 100 petabytes of data and processed 100 billion files a day.

File backup and sharing services

You asked. We answered with Code42 CrashPlan 5.0 | Data on the Edge
You asked. We answered with Code42 CrashPlan 5.0 | Data on the Edge

Code42 is best known for developing and marketing the CrashPlan data backup service. CrashPlan backs up data to remote servers, other computers, or hard drives. It is available on Mac, Windows and Linux. The consumer version is sold on a freemium model, where daily local backups are free, but using Code42's cloud service requires a paid subscription called CrashPlan for Home. There is a paid option for seed loading, in which a hard drive is sent to the user, so a faster local backup can be performed to the drive and it can be shipped back to Code42 for initial backup. There are also CrashPlan and CrashPlan PRO and PROe mobile apps for accessing backed-up data from iOS, Android and Windows devices.

Initial backups may take several hours via LAN or days over the internet, depending on the amount of data and bandwidth available, but afterwards, continuous and incremental backups are conducted without user intervention. Data is encrypted, password-protected and stored in a proprietary format. There is also an option for a more secure private key. Corporate users that have CrashPlan PROe back up to private servers instead of Code42's data centers in four out of five cases. The software has an option to create a private on-site backup server.

Code42 used to develop and market a file sharing service called SharePlan, which was released in October 2013. According to the Star Tribune, it competed with DropBox, but SharePlan used a PIN to access files and track users. In October 2014, a revision of the software added features for regulatory compliance like Sarbanes-Oxley and options for a private, public or hybrid cloud deployment. It had a single login with Crashplan using a feature called the "Code42 EDGE Platform", which was improved in December 2014 with two-factor authentication features. Shareplan was discontinued in August 2015.


In a comparative review in The Wall Street Journal, the reviewer said CrashPlan was their favorite out of the four services evaluated. He said it lacked "fine print", whereas some of the other services charged additional fees for basic features or weren't really unlimited. PC Magazine gave CrashPlan 4.5 out of 5 stars and awarded it Editor's Choice. The review praised it for its user interface, local backup options and security features, but said its mobile and explorer-based features were "limited."

A product review on MacWorld gave CrashPlan a rating of 4.5 out of 5, and Gartner gave the enterprise version, CrashPlan PROe, an "excellent" rating. In benchmark tests by Computerworld, CrashPlan was the best performer in an incremental backup of 25 MB, but the worst performer in archiving an entire system drive, which took almost five days. A Wall Street Journal columnist also noted lengthy initial backups, followed by better-performing incremental ones. Techworld praised CrashPlan for its operating system support and configuration options. Ars Technica said CrashPlan had better features and pricing options than competitors.

See also

Sending CrashPlan Log Files To Support - Code42 Support
Sending CrashPlan Log Files To Support - Code42 Support
  • Comparison of online backup services


Faster tech refresh with Code42 CrashPlan | Data on the Edge
Faster tech refresh with Code42 CrashPlan | Data on the Edge

External links

Code42 CrashPlan and the Casper Suite: The Greatest Partnership ...
Code42 CrashPlan and the Casper Suite: The Greatest Partnership ...
  • Official website

You asked. We answered with Code42 CrashPlan 5.0 | Data on the Edge
You asked. We answered with Code42 CrashPlan 5.0 | Data on the Edge
Online Data Backup - Offsite, Onsite, & Cloud - CrashPlan Backup ...

Online Data Backup - Offsite, Onsite, & Cloud - CrashPlan Backup ...

Code42 – Crashplan


A colocation centre (also spelled co-location, or colo) is a type of data centre where equipment, space, and bandwidth are available for rental to retail customers. They are sometimes also referred to as "carrier hotels." Colocation facilities provide space, power, cooling, and physical security for the server, storage, and networking equipment of other firms—and connect them to a variety of telecommunications and network service providers—with a minimum of cost and complexity.


Colocation and Choosing the Right Data Centre For Your Business in Australia - Today, IT has to deploy more apps, to a more mobile workforce and increasingly, to external customers and partners via the internet, 24/7. As a result, more and ...

Colocation has become a popular option for companies with midsize IT needs—especially those in Internet related business. It allows companies to focus its IT staff on the actual work being done, instead of the logistical support needs which underlie the work. Significant benefits of scale (large power and mechanical systems) result in large colocation facilities, typically 4500 to 9500 square metres (roughly 50,000 to 100,000 square feet).

Claimed benefits of colocation include:

  • A predictable and operational expenditure model
  • Additional capacity can be brought on quickly, cheaply, and only as needed
  • Better access to space and power
  • Experienced professionals managing your data center facility
  • An ecosystem of partners in the same facility
  • Dedicated infrastructure to build your cloud strategy
  • Lean infrastructure to manage during times of rapid business change
  • A better road map for disaster recovery

Colocation facilities provide, as a retail rental business, usually on a term contract:

  • lockable rack cabinets or cages,
  • power in a variety of formats, AC and DC,
  • network connectivity—either in a 'house blend', where the colo provider is a customer of carriers, and connects their clients to their own router for access to multiple carriers, or as direct 'cross-connect' access to the routers of the carriers themselves, or both,
  • cooling,
  • physical security (including video surveillance, biometric and badge access, logging, and the like), and
  • real-time live monitoring of all these functions for failures.

They also provide redundant systems for, usually, all of these features, to mitigate the problems when each inevitably fails.

Among the economies of scale which result from grouping many small-to-midsized customers together in one facility are included:

  • higher reliability due to redundant systems
  • 24/7 monitoring by engineers
  • lower network latency and higher bandwidth at a lower cost
  • specialist staff, like network and facilities engineers, which would not be cost effective for any single client to keep on the payroll.

Major types of colocation customers are:

  • Web commerce companies, who use the facilities for a safe environment and cost-effective, redundant connections to the Internet
  • Major enterprises, who use the facility for disaster avoidance, offsite data backup and business continuity
  • Telecommunication companies, who use the facilities to exchange traffic with other telecommunications companies and access to potential clients—a colo facility where many carriers are physically present is often called a 'carrier hotel'; the presence of such a facility at a colo increases its value to some classes of potential customers.
  • eCommerce sites, who use the facilities to house servers dedicated to processing secure transactions online.

Typically, colocation service offers the infrastructure, power, physical security etc. while the clients provide both storage and servers. Besides this, space a facility is either leased by room, rack as well as cabinet. Many colos today are expanding their portfolio to extend managed services that back their client’s business initiatives. Several reasons persuade business owners to opt for colo over constructing their own data center. However, the major driver in this space is CAPEX (or capital expenditures) usually associated with a large building or managing a big computing facility. Traditionally, colos were popular among the private companies mainly for disaster recovery. But in recent times they are used by cloud service vendors.

Furthermore, for few enterprises, colo is an effective solution, but there are certain downsides to such an approach. Distance often results in high travel costs especially when a device has to be touched manually. In such cases, colo clients often find themselves trapped into long–term contracts, which often prevent customers from re-negotiating the prices when they fall. Therefore, it’s important for a company to thoroughly examine its colocation SLAs (Service Level Agreements) so that they are not taken aback by the hidden charges.


The Data Center JournalWholesale, Colocation, Cloud or Hybrid—It's ...
The Data Center JournalWholesale, Colocation, Cloud or Hybrid—It's ...

“Multi-tenant [colocation] providers sell to a wide range of customers, from Fortune 1000 enterprises to small- and medium-sized organizations.” “Typically the facility provides power and cooling to the space, but the IT equipment is owned by the customer. The value proposition of retail multi-tenant is that customers can retain full control of the design and management of their servers and storage, but turn over the daily task of managing data center and facility infrastructure to their multi-tenant provider.”

  • Cabinets – A cabinet is a locking unit that holds a server rack. In a multi-tenant data center, servers within cabinets share raised-floor space with other tenants, in addition to sharing power and cooling infrastructure.
  • Cages – A cage is dedicated server space within a traditional raised-floor data center; it is surrounded by mesh walls and entered through a locking door. Cages share power and cooling infrastructure with other data center tenants.
  • Suites – A suite is a dedicated, private server space within a traditional raised-floor data center; it is fully enclosed by solid partitions and entered through a locking door. Suites share power and cooling infrastructure with other data center tenants.
  • Modules – A data center module is “a prefabricated, pretested module which is assembled in a custom-configured manner to form a complete solution, ideally defined by software.” In a colocation environment, the data center module is a data center within a data center, with its own steel walls and security protocol, and its own cooling and power infrastructure. “A number of colocation companies have praised the modular approach to data centers to better match customer demand with physical build outs, and allow customers to buy a data center as a service, paying only for what they consume.”

Building features

Colocation | GTS - Czech Republic
Colocation | GTS - Czech Republic

Buildings with data centres inside them are often easy to recognize due to the amount of cooling equipment located outside or on the roof.

Colocation facilities have many other special characteristics:

  • Fire protection systems, including passive and active design elements, as well as implementation of fire prevention programmes in operations. Smoke detectors are usually installed to provide early warning of a developing fire by detecting particles generated by smouldering components prior to the development of flame. This allows investigation, interruption of power, and manual fire suppression using hand held fire extinguishers before the fire grows to a large size. A fire sprinkler system is often provided to control a full scale fire if it develops. Clean agent fire suppression gaseous systems are sometimes installed to suppress a fire earlier than the fire sprinkler system. Passive fire protection elements include the installation of fire walls around the space, so a fire can be restricted to a portion of the facility for a limited time in the event of the failure of the active fire protection systems, or if they are not installed.
  • 19-inch racks for data equipment and servers, 23-inch racks for telecommunications equipment.
  • Cabinets and cages for physical access control over tenants' equipment.
  • Overhead or underfloor cable rack (tray) and fibreguide, power cables usually on separate rack from data.
  • Air conditioning is used to control the temperature and humidity in the space. ASHRAE recommends a temperature range and humidity range for optimal electronic equipment conditions versus environmental issues. The electrical power used by the electronic equipment is converted to heat, which is rejected to the ambient air in the data centre space. Unless the heat is removed, the ambient temperature will rise, resulting in electronic equipment malfunction. By controlling the space air temperature, the server components at the board level are kept within the manufacturer's specified temperature/humidity range. Air conditioning systems help keep equipment spaces humidity within acceptable parameters by cooling the return space air below the dew point. Too much humidity and water may begin to condense on internal components. In case of a dry atmosphere, ancillary humidification systems may add water vapour to the space if the humidity is too low, to avoid static electricity discharge problems which may damage components.
  • Low-impedance electrical ground.
  • Few, if any, windows.

Colocation data centres are often audited to prove that they live up to certain standards and levels of reliability; the most commonly seen systems are SSAE 16 SOC 1 Type I and Type II (formerly SAS 70 Type I and Type II) and the tier system by the Uptime Institute. For service organizations today, SSAE 16 calls for a description of its "system". This is far more detailed and comprehensive than SAS 70's description of "controls". Other data center compliance standards include HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) audit) and PCI DSS Standards.

Physical security

The Data Center JournalIs Colocation Right for Your Business ...
The Data Center JournalIs Colocation Right for Your Business ...

Most colocation centres have high levels of physical security, including on-site security guards trained for Anti-Terrorism in the most extreme cases. Others may simply be guarded continuously. They may also employ CCTV.

Some colocation facilities require that employees escort customers, especially if there are not individual locked cages or cabinets for each customer. In other facilities, a PIN code or proximity card access system may allow customers access into the building, and individual cages or cabinets have locks. Biometric security measures, such as fingerprint recognition, voice recognition and "weight matching", are also becoming more commonplace in modern facilities. 'Man-traps' are also used, where a hallway leading into the data centre has a door at each end and both cannot be open simultaneously; visitors can be seen via CCTV and are manually authorized to enter.


Colocation Services: Data Center locations in US & Canada
Colocation Services: Data Center locations in US & Canada

Colocation facilities generally have generators that start automatically when utility power fails, usually running on diesel fuel. These generators may have varying levels of redundancy, depending on how the facility is built.

Generators do not start instantaneously, so colocation facilities usually have battery backup systems. In many facilities, the operator of the facility provides large inverters to provide AC power from the batteries. In other cases, the customers may install smaller UPSes in their racks.

Some customers choose to use equipment that is powered directly by 48VDC (nominal) battery banks. This may provide better energy efficiency, and may reduce the number of parts that can fail, though the reduced voltage greatly increases necessary current, and thus the size (and cost) of power delivery wiring.

An alternative to batteries is a motor generator connected to a flywheel and diesel engine.

Many colocation facilities can provide redundant, A and B power feeds to customer equipment, and high end servers and telecommunications equipment often can have two power supplies installed.

“Redundancy in IT is a system design in which a component is duplicated so if it fails there will be a backup.”

N+1, also referred to as “parallel redundant”: “The number of UPS modules that are required to handle an adequate supply of power for essential connected systems, plus one more.”

2N+1, also referred to as “system plus system”: “2 UPS systems feeding 2 independent output distribution systems.” Offers complete redundancy between sides A and B. “2(N+1) architectures fed directly to dual-corded loads provide the highest availability by offering complete redundancy and eliminating single points of failure.”

Colocation facilities are sometimes connected to multiple sections of the utility power grid for additional reliability.


Data Centers « Five 9s Digital
Data Centers « Five 9s Digital

The operator of a colocation facility generally provides air conditioning for the computer and telecommunications equipment in the building. The cooling system generally includes some degree of redundancy.

In older facilities, the cooling system capacity often limits the amount of equipment that can operate in the building, more so than the available square footage.

Internal connections

Colocation - UK Data Centre Colocation Services
Colocation - UK Data Centre Colocation Services

Colocation facility owners have differing rules regarding cross connects between their customers, some of whom may be carriers. These rules may allow customers to run such connections at no charge, or allow customers to order such connections for a significant monthly fee. They may allow customers to order cross connects to carriers, but not to other customers.

Some colocation centres feature a "meet-me-room" where the different carriers housed in the centre can efficiently exchange data.

Most peering points sit in colocation centres.

Because of the high concentration of servers inside larger colocation centres, most carriers will be interested in bringing direct connections to such buildings.

In many cases, there will be a larger Internet Exchange hosted inside a colocation centre, where customers can connect for peering.

External connections

Convergent-Solutions.com – Colocation Data Centers with a Difference
Convergent-Solutions.com – Colocation Data Centers with a Difference

Colocation facilities generally have multiple locations for fibre optic cables to enter the building, to provide redundancy so that communications can continue if one bundle of cables is damaged. Some also have wireless backup connections, for example via satellite.

See also

The Nigerian Stock Exchange Partners with Rack Centre on Data ...
The Nigerian Stock Exchange Partners with Rack Centre on Data ...
  • Data centre
  • Internet exchange point


Convergent-Solutions.com – Colocation Data Centers with a Difference
Convergent-Solutions.com – Colocation Data Centers with a Difference

External links

  • Colocation at DMOZ
  • Build Or Colocate? The ROI Of Your Next Data Center
  • Multi-Tenant Datacenter Global Providers – 2014
  • DCK Guide To Modular Data Centers: The Modular Market

Colocation Centre – Colocation


A criminal defense lawyer, also known as a defense attorney, is a lawyer specializing in the defense of individuals and companies charged with criminal activity. Some criminal defense lawyers are privately retained, while others are employed by the various jurisdictions with criminal courts for appointment to represent indigent persons; the latter are generally called public defenders. The terminology is imprecise because each jurisdiction may have different practices with various levels of input from state and federal law or consent decrees. Some jurisdictions use a rotating system of appointments with judges appointing a private practice attorney or firm for each case.

United States

Elizabeth Criminal Defense Lawyer Vincent J. Sanzone, Jr., argues before NJ Supreme Court - If you have been arrested or charged with a crime call the criminal defense attorney Vincent Sanzone, for an immediate consultation at (Cell Phone ...

In the United States, criminal defense lawyers deal with the issues surrounding an arrest, a criminal investigation, criminal charges, sentencing, appeals and post-trial issues. Often an attorney will specialize in a niche within criminal defense such as drug defense or DUI defense. An arrest simply means a police officer or judge believes probable cause exists that a person committed a crime. Since an arrest is usually made by law enforcement, the arrest often is for a criminal charge that has not been levied or verified by an attorney or judge. Criminal defense lawyers also deal with the substantive issues of the crimes with which his or her clients are charged. Criminal defense lawyers may also help clients before charges have been filed by a prosecuting attorney. This is done when someone believes he or she is being investigated or is arrested.

The accused may hire a criminal defense lawyer to help with counsel and representation dealing with police or other investigators, perform his or her own investigation, and at times present exculpatory evidence that negates potential charges by the prosecutor. Criminal defense lawyers in the United States who are employed by governmental entities such as counties, state governments, and the federal government are often referred to as public defenders or court-appointed attorneys.

A considerable aspect of this work requires the criminal defense lawyer to have a clear understanding of the United States Constitution. Specifically, the Fourth Amendment protects against unlawful searches and seizures while the Fifth and Sixth Amendments govern the right to remain silent so one does not become a witness against himself. All of the Amendments to the United States Constitution are guaranteed to the criminal accused against the states via the Fourteenth Amendment. Thus, a criminal defense lawyer must understand each of these rights. Initial work on any criminal case involves review of the charges and the claimed facts, and analysis of constitutional violations, the prima facie burden of the prosecution, defenses, and affirmative defenses; as well as potential sentence and sentencing issues. Early stages of a criminal case may involve a grand jury or preliminary hearing to determine if there exists probable cause for the case to continue. A violation of the Fourth or Fifth Amendment, or other illegally obtained evidence could result in evidence being inadmissible at trial. Accordingly, a criminal defense lawyer often spends a considerable amount of time reviewing all documentation to determine if the case can be won on constitutional grounds due to illegal conduct by the government.

If there are no constitutional violations, much of the work of a criminal defense attorney then turns to trial preparation. Any proposed settlement agreement must be compared to the best judgment about the outcome after trial. A criminal defense lawyer will usually discuss potential plea bargains with the prosecuting attorney, as an alternative to exercising the defendant's trial right and other rights. Plea agreements, when made, can be characterized as either charge agreements (often involving a less serious charge), sentencing agreements (involving a lesser sentence), or both.

Criminal defense lawyers are typically defending people with misdemeanor or felony charges. A misdemeanor generally refers to criminal activity that is punishable by one year or less in the local jail. A felony typically refers to criminal activity that is punishable by more than one year in the prison system. Many states have "wobblers", which refers to criminal activity that is charged as a felony, but has a possibility of being reduced to a misdemeanor. In matters involving a wobbler, many times a reputable lawyer can either have the felony reduced to a misdemeanor or in the alternative have the felony appear to be a misdemeanor so that the felony can be reduced to a misdemeanor at a later date, which is good strategy since the typical felony cannot be expunged.

The process of becoming a criminal defense attorney is similar to any other legal practice area. To become a criminal defense lawyer, a person will typically complete their undergraduate degree and graduate from a law school. After graduating law school and passing the bar examination, the new lawyer can begin practicing criminal law. However, nearly all reputable criminal defense attorneys spend some time after being admitted to the bar working under the mentorship of an experienced older attorney, often in a prosecutors office or a public defenders office.

United Kingdom

Criminal Defense Lawyers in Bucks County & Montgomery County, PA ...
Criminal Defense Lawyers in Bucks County & Montgomery County, PA ...

The name in British English is "defence counsel", or "criminal defence counsel".


Massachusetts Criminal Defense Lawyer - Defense Lawyer in ...
Massachusetts Criminal Defense Lawyer - Defense Lawyer in ...

Criminal Defense | Criminal Law
Criminal Defense | Criminal Law
Criminal Defense Attorney Chula Vista, Criminal Defense Lawyer ...

Criminal Defense Attorney Chula Vista, Criminal Defense Lawyer ...Pages+from+Curriculum+Vitae+ ...

Pages+from+Curriculum+Vitae+ ...Criminal Defense Lawyers, DUI, Civil- Contact Smith & Eulo

Criminal Defense Lawyers, DUI, Civil- Contact Smith & EuloCharlottesville Criminal Defense Lawyers | Virginia DUI & Traffic ...

Charlottesville Criminal Defense Lawyers | Virginia DUI & Traffic ...

Criminal Defense Lawyer – Defense Attorney


Joseph Antonio Cartagena (born August 19, 1970), better known by his stage name Fat Joe, is an American rapper. He is also the CEO of Terror Squad Entertainment, and member of musical groups D.I.T.C. and Terror Squad.

Fat Joe's debut album was Represent, released in 1993, followed by Jealous One's Envy in 1995. From 1998 to 2006, he was signed to Atlantic Records, releasing four albums under the label, Don Cartagena in 1998, Jealous Ones Still Envy (J.O.S.E.) in 2001, Loyalty in 2002, and All or Nothing in 2005. Around the release of All or Nothing, Fat Joe became involved in a highly publicized feud with another New York City-based rapper 50 Cent, who attacked Fat Joe in his song "Piggy Bank". His most popular song in which he performed was his Remy Ma duet "Lean Back" with Terror Squad. The song was a number-one hit in the summer of 2004.

Starting in 2006, when his album Me, Myself, & I was released, Fat Joe was signed to Imperial Records, which distributes through Terror Squad Entertainment. His follow up album was The Elephant in the Room, which was released in 2008; Jealous Ones Still Envy 2 (J.O.S.E. 2), the sequel to Jealous Ones Still Envy (J.O.S.E.), was released in October 2009. His tenth album The Darkside Vol. 1 was released on July 27, 2010.

Early life

Fat Joe Speaks On His Massive Weight Loss - http://VladTV.com - What do you think of the new look Joe? Videographer: Obatala Masusi Video Editor: Obatala Masusi.

Fat Joe was born on August 19, 1970 in the South Bronx area of New York City, where he was raised by parents of Puerto Rican and Cuban descent. He lived in public housing and began stealing at a young age to support his family. He also admits that he was a bully in his childhood. His brother introduced him to rap music. As a teenager, he was highly influenced by fellow Latino rapper Big Pun. Fat Joe explained the rapper's influence on him by saying "Latinos before us who had the opportunity to do it just didn't know how to do it. They came in trying to do this black music, waving flags. [But] we're trying to kick in the doors for other Latinos and represent our people, and it shows."

Music career


1992–95: Early years

Under stage name Fat Joe da Gangsta and part of the Diggin' in the Crates (D.I.T.C.) rap group, Cartagena was signed to Relativity Records in the early 1990s, recording material and working with many artists who he would later sign to his own label. In 1993, his debut album, Represent, was released, featuring production from The Beatnuts, Diamond D, Lord Finesse, and others. Its lead single, "Flow Joe" peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot Rap Singles chart; other minor singles from the album included "Watch the Sound" and "This Shit is Real".

In 1995, Fat Joe released his second studio album, Jealous One's Envy, which peaked at #71 on The Billboard 200 and at #7 on Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums. The album featured a guest appearance from KRS-One and production from Diamond D. The lead single was Success, which did not chart, but his second single, "Envy" peaked at #8 on the Hot Rap Tracks chart. The success of this album led Fat Joe to be featured on the remix of LL Cool J's single "I Shot Ya" along with Foxy Brown, Keith Murray and Prodigy of Mobb Deep.

1998–2005: Signing to Atlantic Records, Terror Squad, feud with 50 Cent

Released in 1998, Don Cartagena was Joe's third album and his first for Atlantic Records. It peaked on The Billboard 200 at #7 and #2 on Top R&B/Hip Hop albums, eventually being certified gold by the RIAA.

The album featured two hit singles "Bet Ya Man Can't Triz", and "Don Cartagena". Guest appearances included Nas, Diddy, Big Pun, Raekwon, Jadakiss, and Bone Thugs-N-Harmony. Within the album, Fat Joe debuted his own group Terror Squad that consisted of the late Big Pun, as well as Cuban Link, Triple Seis, Prospect, Armageddon and later Remy Ma. Joe himself acknowledged, in an interview with HipHopGame.com, that he has received criticism for releasing only one solo album by a former Terror Squad member, Remy Ma, as well as barely featuring original members Prospect and Armageddon on "True Story." Terror Squad singer Tony Sunshine has had possible album release dates pushed back over three years, and Joe had stated that artists Prospect and Armageddon have not released solo albums yet as the result of them being "really lazy". Former Terror Squad member Triple Seis also went on record when asked who had written Fat Joe's lyrics, stating that he and Pun were Joe's ghostwriters, and asserts that Joe continues to hire ghostwriters. In 1999, he appeared on Jennifer Lopez's single "Feelin' So Good" from her On the 6 album with late rapper Big Pun.

Fat Joe released his fourth album Jealous Ones Still Envy (J.O.S.E.) in 2001, featuring production from the then-popular Irv Gotti. The album featured a star-studded lineup from the likes of Ashanti, Ja Rule, N.O.R.E., Busta Rhymes, Petey Pablo, M.O.P., Ludacris, R. Kelly, Buju Banton, and artists from his Terror Squad label. The lead single "We Thuggin'" featuring R. Kelly was a big hit in late 2001, but would not reach the level of the Irv Gotti-produced "What's Luv?" which was a massive hit in early 2002 and featured The Inc. superstars Ja Rule and Ashanti. The album was Fat Joe's biggest hit as it was successful from its January release all the way into May, being certified platinum. However, Fat Joe's fifth album Loyalty, released later in 2002 and featuring production from Irv Gotti, was not as successful.

In 2003, Fat Joe was featured in the pop single "I Want You" by Mexican singer Thalía. The same year, he and Tony Sunshine performed the single "Crush Tonight" from Loyalty on the Comedy Central program Chappelle's Show, hosted by comedian Dave Chappelle.

Despite the setback, Fat Joe scored a number-one hit in 2004 with his group Terror Squad, collaborating with Remy Ma on the Scott Storch production "Lean Back" from the album True Story. The song was criticized twice by conservative columnist L. Brent Bozell III for its extensive use of obscenity. However, Jason Birchmeier of Allmusic called the song "a perfect club-ready duet between Joe and Remy Ma that boasts a trademark Scott Storch beat and a memorable singalong hook and dance-along step". He then began recording material for Ivy Queen's debut English-language album Real in support of her goal to compete in the world of English-language hip hop music.

A year later, in 2005, Fat Joe released his sixth album All or Nothing, noted for featuring the popular diss track "My Fofo", aimed at fellow New York rapper 50 Cent, who had dissed Joe for recording with Ja Rule. All or Nothing spawned the singles "So Much More" and "Get It Poppin" featuring Nelly, also with guest appearances from Eminem, Mase, Remy Ma, Mashonda, and R. Kelly. Responding to "My Fofo", 50 Cent attacked Fat Joe in his song "Piggy Bank" from his best-selling 2005 album The Massacre. Fat Joe subsequently attacked 50s street credibility and called him a "coward" on a phone interview with Kay Slay of New York City hip-hop radio station WQHT. The conflict carried on at the 2005 MTV Video Music Awards, while Fat Joe introduced the reggaeton act featuring Daddy Yankee, Joe remarked, "I feel safe with all the police protection—courtesy of G-Unit." Shortly after, when MTV switched to a commercial break, 50 Cent directed an obscenity at Joe, and 50 Cent jumped on stage as Fat Joe was leaving.

2006–08: Me, Myself & I, The Elephant in the Room, the 50 Cent feud continued, and more

Me, Myself & I, released in 2006, is Fat Joe's seventh album. It was his first album released on his new deal with Virgin Records. It featured the hit single "Make It Rain" with southern rapper Lil Wayne, followed by "No Drama (Clap and Revolve)". Fat Joe did a freestyle cipher segment for VH1's "Freestyle 59" competition in October 2006 prior to the VH1 Hip Hop Honors featuring New Jersey emcee Neuse.

In June 2007, the Reverend Michael Pfleger targeted Fat Joe as among several rappers he believed promoted misogyny in his billboard campaign "Stop Listening to Trash", which was launched June 18, 2007 throughout Chicago, Illinois, where Pfleger preaches. Also that month, Fat Joe was featured in the DJ Khaled singles "We Takin' Over" alongside Akon, T.I., Rick Ross, Birdman, and Lil Wayne and the remix to Khaled's "I'm So Hood" with Lil Wayne, Young Jeezy, Rick Ross, Busta Rhymes, Big Boi, Ludacris, and Birdman. Verbal disputes between Fat Joe and 50 Cent continued during this time period: in September 2007, on the BET program Rap City, 50 Cent accused Fat Joe of being cowardly for not willing to confront him, but Fat Joe dismissed this claim as nonsense. Later in January, 50 Cent released another Fat Joe diss, called "Southside Nigga (I'm Leaving)". At the end of January 2008, Fat Joe and his longtime accountant Brian Dittrich both denied rumors spreading on the Internet that Fat Joe owed the IRS in taxes.

Fat Joe's eighth solo studio album The Elephant in the Room was distributed by Imperial Records, a division of Capitol Records and Terror Squad Entertainment, and released on March 11, 2008; its lead single was "I Won't Tell" featuring singer J. Holiday. The album debuted at the sixth position on the Billboard Hot 100. "Ain't Sayin' Nuthin'" followed and featured Plies.

On March 20, 2008, shortly after record sales were released for Fat Joe's new album The Elephant in the Room, 50 Cent released a video via his YouTube account, which features the "funeral" of Fat Joe, which shows 50 Cent crying in the fake footage. 50 Cent then talks about Fat Joe's record sales, and states that he ended Fat Joe's career (like he says he did to Ja Rule's) and that his mixtape blew out Fat Joe's album.

2009: Jealous Ones Still Envy 2

Fat Joe's ninth solo studio album, J.O.S.E. 2, was released towards the end of June 2009. The project reprises the title of Joe’s 2002 RIAA-Certified Platinum release, Jealous Ones Still Envy (J.O.S.E.), and marked Joe’s third release since bringing his Terror Squad imprint to the EMI family in 2006. For this album, Joe has reached out to many artists, landing assists from Ron Browz, Fabolous, Lil' Kim, T-Pain, Lil Wayne, and Akon. Producers include Jim Jonsin, The Inkredibles, and frequent collaborator StreetRunner. "One", featuring Akon, was the first single. The album was released on October 6, 2009 and sold 11,000 copies in its first week. It debuted on The Billboard 200 at #73.

2010: Signing to E1 Music and The Darkside

In January 2010, Fat Joe announced that he was working on a new album, The Darkside Vol. 1. MTV News reported that Fat Joe intended "all the material...to be much harsher" than his previous album. Production comes from The Alchemist, Cool & Dre, Streetrunner, DJ Premier, Scoop DeVille, Just Blaze, Scram Jones, Raw Uncut and DJ Infamous with guest appearances by Busta Rhymes, Trey Songz, Lil Wayne, R. Kelly, Clipse, Cam'ron, Rico Love, Too $hort, TA and Young Jeezy. The first single from The Darkside Vol. 1 is "(Ha Ha) Slow Down," which features Young Jeezy. The second single off the album is "If It Ain't About Money" and features Trey Songz.

On March 28, 2010 Fat Joe signed a record deal with E1 Music. The Darkside Vol. 1 was released on July 27, 2010 and sold approximately 12,000 copies in the first week and entered the Billboard 200 at #27.

On August 6, 2010 Fat Joe was interviewed on MTV RapFix Live by Sway. Fat Joe announced in the interview that he planned to record 2 more volumes of The Darkside and then retire.

2011–present: Darkside Vol. 2 and eleventh studio album

Joe was featured on a remix to DJ Khaled's song "Welcome to My Hood", which also features Ludacris, T-Pain, Busta Rhymes, Twista, Mavado, Birdman, Ace Hood, Game, Jadakiss, Bun B and Waka Flocka Flame. It is included as the final track on Khaled's fifth studio album We the Best Forever.

In an interview with XXL Magazine on September 21, 2011 Fat Joe stated The Darkside Vol. 2 is going to be his first ever official mixtape and will feature the Mark Henry produced songs "Massacre on Madison" and "Drop a Body", both of which were released earlier in the year. Joe went on to say he is also working on an album which is yet to be named but the first single is called "Another Round" produced by Cool and Dre and Young Lad and features Chris Brown.

On October 19, 2011 Another Round the first single off Joe's yet to be named eleventh studio album was released on iTunes. The second single released from the album is "Yellow Tape" which features Lil Wayne, ASAP Rocky and French Montana. In September 2012, Joe featured in Grammy awards winner Alejandro Sanz's new album, La Música No Se Toca in a music named Down. Joe would then release another single, "Ballin'" on March 18, 2013. The song features Wiz Khalifa and Teyana Taylor.

Awards and Nominations

fashion-and-beauty-fat-joe- ...
fashion-and-beauty-fat-joe- ...

ASCAP Rhythm & Soul Music Awards

Billboard Latin Music Awards

Grammy Awards

BET Awards

MTV Video Music Awards

Personal life

Fat Joe talks weight loss,New single with Chris Brown, New project ...
Fat Joe talks weight loss,New single with Chris Brown, New project ...


Fat Joe currently lives in Miami and is married with three children.

Community work

Fat Joe has been back to his old school in the Bronx, New York to donate computers for the students.

In 2008, he attended the grand opening of the Hip Hop Soda Shop in Miami which was community outreach project set up by Ben Chavis for the youth to hang out and do things such as record music, use the computers and play on Xbox 360s.

At a "School is Cool" assembly in Public School 5 in Jersey City, New Jersey on June 11, 2009, Fat Joe was a speaker.

On January 23, 2011, Fat Joe appeared with Newark mayor Cory Booker and fitness expert Jeff Halevy at an event to promote the Newark branch of Michelle Obama's Let's Move! initiative against childhood obesity.

Weight loss

By 1996, he weighed 300 pounds (140 kg). In 2005, Stuff magazine and ContactMusic.com profiled Fat Joe's weight loss efforts.

In 2011, Fat Joe unveiled his latest weight loss efforts in the video for his song "Drop a Body" after shedding 88 pounds off his previous weight of 350 pounds. Furthermore, he follows a low-carb approach, eating some sweet potatoes but not eating bread, rice and pasta.

Legal issues

On September 8, 1998, Fat Joe and Big Pun were arrested on assault charges for hitting a man with a baseball bat and stealing the man's gold chain on June 14 that year. Joe was arrested again on May 12, 2002 for allegedly fighting with another man at B.B. King's Blues Club in Times Square, but the charges were dropped on January 10, 2003.

In two murder cases, Fat Joe has been named a witness:

Joe's former bodyguard, Jose Mulero (also known as Sing Sing), was arrested on September 17, 2004 for the April 15, 1994 shooting death of 16-year-old Ernesto Rivera at a Bronx nightclub. Responding to a subpoena, Fat Joe claimed to have heard the shooting and seen people fleeing the scene, but investigators argued that he was standing closer to Mulero, by a door.

Miami Beach police also named Fat Joe as a witness in a Memorial Day double homicide outside David's Cafe II in South Beach. Jermaine Wufgang Chamberline of Miami Gardens was accused of shooting Lessli Paz and Joey Navarro to death on that morning; Fat Joe and the two victims were sitting in a rented Cadillac Escalade parked outside the restaurant when a fight broke out between passengers and another man.

In December 2012, Fat Joe pled guilty to tax evasion for not paying income tax on over 3 million dollars from 2007-2010. It was reported he could face up to two years in prison and a fine of up to $200,000, plus penalties from the IRS. He was to be sentenced during April 2013. On June 24, 2013, he was sentenced to four months in prison for tax evasion. He began the sentence on August 26, 2013, and was released on November 28, 2013.

LGBT beliefs and support

During an interview with Vlad TV, Joe stated that while not gay himself, gay people should not hide their sexuality and they should stand by who they are. He mentioned that it's possible that he has done songs with gay rappers and that there are likely several gay people besides just rappers in the hip hop industry who are in the closet, describing it as a "Gay Mafia".

His comments came after being asked to comment on Mister Cee being arrested for public lewdness with a transgender prostitute.


8 genius fat loss tips JOE learned from top body transformation ...
8 genius fat loss tips JOE learned from top body transformation ...
  • Represent (1993)
  • Jealous One's Envy (1995)
  • Don Cartagena (1998)
  • Jealous Ones Still Envy (J.O.S.E.) (2001)
  • Loyalty (2002)
  • All or Nothing (2005)
  • Me, Myself & I (2006)
  • The Elephant in the Room (2008)
  • Jealous Ones Still Envy 2 (J.O.S.E. 2) (2009)
  • The Darkside Vol. 1 (2010)


Ja Rule, Fat Joe and Twista Perform in London in 2014, 8 Reasons ...
Ja Rule, Fat Joe and Twista Perform in London in 2014, 8 Reasons ...
  • Thicker Than Water (1999) - Lonzo Medina
  • Prison Song (2001)
  • Empire (2002)
  • Scary Movie 3 (2003) - As Himself
  • Happy Feet (2006) - voice of Seymour

See also

Will Fat Joe's Weight Loss Inspire Others? | News | BET
Will Fat Joe's Weight Loss Inspire Others? | News | BET
  • List of famous Puerto Ricans
  • Latin hip hop
  • List of number-one dance hits (United States)
  • List of artists who reached number one on the US Dance chart


fat joe | Hip Hop Vibe | Page 37
fat joe | Hip Hop Vibe | Page 37

External links

Joe madison weight loss
Joe madison weight loss
  • Official website (archived from 2009)
  • Fat Joe on Twitter
  • Fat Joe at the Internet Movie Database

Fat Joe – Fat Joe Weight Loss

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Encryption does not of itself prevent interception, but denies the message content to the interceptor. In an encrypti...

Encryption – Encrypt


Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others. Typically used with other cancer medications, it can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin. It may also be administered inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a fluid around the lung due to cancer; however talc is better for this.

Common side effects include fever, weight loss, vomiting, and rash. A severe type of anaphylaxis may occur. It may also cause inflammation of the lungs that can result in lung scarring. Chest X-rays every couple of weeks are recommended to check for this. Bleomycin may cause harm to the baby if used during pregnancy. It is believed to primarily work by preventing the making of DNA.

Bleomycin was discovered in 1962. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost is between 14 USD and 78 USD a dose. It is made by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus.

Medical uses

Bleomycin - Bleomycin is a popular DNA-reactive anticancer agent. This animation consists of three parts, 1) the first is a simple backdrop that shows DNA and the drug in ...


Bleomycin is mostly used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's disease, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer. It can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin.

Other uses

It may also be put inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a pleural effusion due to cancer. For scaring down the pleura talc however appears to be better.

While potentially effective against bacterial infections, its toxicity prevents its use for this purpose. It has been studied in the treatment of warts but is of unclear benefit.

Side effects


The most serious complication of bleomycin is pulmonary fibrosis and impaired lung function. It has been suggested that bleomycin induces sensitivity to oxygen toxicity and recent studies support the role of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1beta in the mechanism of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Any previous treatment with bleomycin should therefore always be disclosed to the anaesthetist prior to undergoing a procedure requiring general anaesthesia. Due to the oxygen sensitive nature of bleomycin, and the theorised increased likelihood of developing pulmonary fibrosis following supplemental oxygen therapy, it has been questioned whether patients should take part in scuba diving following treatment with the drug.

Other side effects include fever, rash, dermatographism, hyperpigmentation, alopecia (hair loss) and Raynaud's phenomenon (discoloration of fingers and toes).

Mechanism of action

Nucleic acid-drug interactions
Nucleic acid-drug interactions

Bleomycin acts by induction of DNA strand breaks. Some studies suggest bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine into DNA strands. DNA cleavage by bleomycin depends on oxygen and metal ions, at least in vitro. The exact mechanism of DNA strand scission is unresolved, but it has been suggested that bleomycin chelates metal ions (primarily iron), producing a pseudoenzyme that reacts with oxygen to produce superoxide and hydroxide free radicals that cleave DNA. An alternative hypothesis states that bleomycin may bind at specific sites in the DNA strand and induce scission by abstracting the hydrogen atom from the base, resulting in strand cleavage as the base undergoes a Criegee-type rearrangement, or forms an alkali-labile lesion. In addition, these complexes also mediate lipid peroxidation and oxidation of other cellular molecules. Therefore, bleomycin is used in combination with doxorubicin in Hodgkins lymphoma, as they have additive and complementary effects on the DNA, since doxorubicin acts by intercalating between DNA strands, and also acts on topoisomerase II enzyme thus relaxing the topoisomerase complexes.



Bleomycin is a nonribosomal peptide that is a hybrid peptide-polyketide natural product. The peptide/polyketide/peptide backbone of the bleomycin aglycon is assembled by the bleomycin megasynthetase, which is made of both nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) modules. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides are synthesized from amino acids and short carboxylic acids by NRPSs and PKSs, respectively. These NRPSs and PKSs use similar strategies for the assembly of these two distinct classes of natural products. Both NRPs and type I PKSs are organized into modules. The structural variations of the resulting peptide and polyketide products are determined by the number and order of modules on each NRPS and PKS protein.

The biosynthesis of the bleomycin aglycon can be visualized in three stages:

  1. NRPS-mediated formation of P-3A from Ser, Asn, His, and Ala
  2. PKS-mediated elongation of P-3A by malonyl CoA and AdoMet to yield P-4
  3. NRPS-mediated elongation of P-4 by Thr to P-5 that is further elongated by β-Ala, Cys, and Cys to get P-6m.

On the basis of the bleomycin structure and the deduced functions of individual NRPS and PKS domains and modules, a linear model for the bleomycin megasynthetase-templated assembly of the bleomycin peptide/polyketide/peptide aglycon was proposed from nine amino acids and one acetate.


Bleomycin (Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.): FDA Package Insert ...
Bleomycin (Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.): FDA Package Insert ...

Bleomycin was first discovered in 1966 when the Japanese scientist Hamao Umezawa found anticancer activity while screening culture filtrates of S. verticillus. Umezawa published his discovery in 1966. The drug was launched in Japan by Nippon Kayaku in 1969. In the US, bleomycin gained FDA approval in July 1973. It was initially marketed in the US by the Bristol-Myers Squibb precursor, Bristol Laboratories, under the brand name Blenoxane.

See also

Toronto Research Chemicals
Toronto Research Chemicals
  • Flagellate pigmentation from bleomycin
  • Pingyangmycin (Bleomycin A5)



Further reading

Bleomycin (Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.): FDA Package Insert ...
Bleomycin (Teva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.): FDA Package Insert ...
  • Claussen, C.A.; Long, E.C. (1999). "Nucleic Acid Recognition by Metal Complexes of Bleomycin". Chem. Rev. 99 (9): 2797–2816. doi:10.1021/cr980449z. PMID 11749501. 
  • Shen, B.; Du, L.C.; Sanchez, C.; Edwards, D.J.; Chen, M.; Murrell, J.M. (2001). "The biosynthetic gene cluster for the anticancer drug bleomycin from Streptomyces verticillus ATCC15003 as a model for hybrid peptide-polyketide natural product biosynthesis". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 27 (6): 378–385. doi:10.1038/sj.jim.7000194. PMID 11774003. 




These quarterbacks have started for the National Football League's Dallas Cowboys. They are listed in order of the date of each player's first start at quarterback for the Cowboys.

Starting quarterbacks

Madden 16 Texans Franchise: BILL O'BRIEN ANNOUNCING THE STARTING QB & RB! (Madden 16 Gameplay) - Houston Texans Head Coach, Bill O'Brien, announces his starting quarterback with Week 1 right around the corner! ▻ Series playlist: ...

List of all Dallas Cowboys starting quarterbacks The number of games they started during the season is listed to the right:

Regular season


Most games as starting quarterback

Star ratings of 2013 starting quarterbacks as high school recruits ...
Star ratings of 2013 starting quarterbacks as high school recruits ...

These quarterbacks have the most starts for the Cowboys in regular season games (as of Week 1 of the 2015 season).

Team career passing records

List of Kansas City Chiefs starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the ...
List of Kansas City Chiefs starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the ...

(As of Week 1 of 2015 season)

Brandon Weeden Is The New Starting QB For The Dallas Cowboys - YouTube
Brandon Weeden Is The New Starting QB For The Dallas Cowboys - YouTube
List of NFL starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

List of NFL starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaMatt Cassel to take over as Cowboys' starting QB after bye - YouTube

Matt Cassel to take over as Cowboys' starting QB after bye - YouTubeList of Indianapolis Colts starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the ...

List of Indianapolis Colts starting quarterbacks - Wikipedia, the ...Cowboys Acquire Quarterback Matt Cassel from Bills | The Big Lead

Cowboys Acquire Quarterback Matt Cassel from Bills | The Big Lead

List Of Dallas Cowboys Starting Quarterbacks – Dallas Cowboys Quarterbacks


Configuration management (CM) is a systems engineering process for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product's performance, functional and physical attributes with its requirements, design and operational information throughout its life. The CM process is widely used by military engineering organizations to manage changes throughout the system lifecycle of complex systems, such as weapon systems, military vehicles, and information systems. Outside the military, the CM process is also used with IT service management as defined by ITIL and with other domain models in the civil engineering and other industrial engineering segments such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.


PMP : Configuration Management : iZenBridge - Enroll in iZenBridge 35 Contact Hours PMP® Online Training Program http://goo.gl/l2aQ Join the conversations and be a part of the current discussions on ...

CM, when applied over the life cycle of a system, provides visibility and control of its performance, functional and physical attributes. CM verifies that a system performs as intended, and is identified and documented in sufficient detail to support its projected life cycle. The CM process facilitates orderly management of system information and system changes for such beneficial purposes as to revise capability; improve performance, reliability, or maintainability; extend life; reduce cost; reduce risk and liability; or correct defects. The relatively minimal cost of implementing CM is returned many fold in cost avoidance. The lack of CM, or its ineffectual implementation, can be very expensive and sometimes can have such catastrophic consequences such as failure of equipment or loss of life.

CM emphasizes the functional relation between parts, subsystems, and systems for effectively controlling system change. It helps to verify that proposed changes are systematically considered to minimize adverse effects. Changes to the system are proposed, evaluated, and implemented using a standardized, systematic approach that ensures consistency, and proposed changes are evaluated in terms of their anticipated impact on the entire system. CM verifies that changes are carried out as prescribed and that documentation of items and systems reflects their true configuration. A complete CM program includes provisions for the storing, tracking, and updating of all system information on a component, subsystem, and system basis.

A structured CM program ensures that documentation (e.g., requirements, design, test, and acceptance documentation) for items is accurate and consistent with the actual physical design of the item. In many cases, without CM, the documentation exists but is not consistent with the item itself. For this reason, engineers, contractors, and management are frequently forced to develop documentation reflecting the actual status of the item before they can proceed with a change. This reverse engineering process is wasteful in terms of human and other resources and can be minimized or eliminated using CM.


ITIL® Wiki - Processes of Service Asset and Configuration Management
ITIL® Wiki - Processes of Service Asset and Configuration Management

Configuration Management originates in the United States Department of Defense in the 1950s as a technical management discipline for hardware material items—and it is now a standard practice in virtually every industry. The CM process became its own technical discipline sometime in the late 1960s when the DoD developed a series of military standards called the "480 series" (i.e., MIL-STD-480 and MIL-STD-481) that were subsequently issued in the 1970s. In 1991, the "480 series" was consolidated into a single standard known as the MIL–STD–973 that was then replaced by MIL–HDBK–61 pursuant to a general DoD goal that reduced the number of military standards in favor of industry technical standards supported by standards developing organizations (SDO). This marked the beginning of what has now evolved into the most widely distributed and accepted standard on CM, ANSI–EIA–649–1998. Now widely adopted by numerous organizations and agencies, the CM discipline's concepts include systems engineering (SE), integrated logistics support (ILS), Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), ISO 9000, Prince2 project management method, COBIT, Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), product lifecycle management, and application lifecycle management. Many of these functions and models have redefined CM from its traditional holistic approach to technical management. Some treat CM as being similar to a librarian activity, and break out change control or change management as a separate or stand alone discipline.


Abstract Word Cloud For Software Configuration Management With ...
Abstract Word Cloud For Software Configuration Management With ...

CM is the practice of handling changes systematically so that a system maintains its integrity over time. CM implements the policies, procedures, techniques, and tools that are required to manage, evaluate proposed changes, track the status of changes, and to maintain an inventory of system and support documents as the system changes. CM programs and plans provide technical and administrative direction to the development and implementation of the procedures, functions, services, tools, processes, and resources required to successfully develop and support a complex system. During system development, CM allows program management to track requirements throughout the life cycle through acceptance and operations and maintenance. As changes are inevitably made to the requirements and design, they must be approved and documented, creating an accurate record of the system status. Ideally the CM process is applied throughout the system lifecycle.

The CM process for both hardware and software configuration items comprises five distinct disciplines as established in the MIL–HDBK–61A and ANSI/EIA-649. These disciplines are carried out as policies and procedures for establishing baselines and performing a standard change management process.

  • CM Planning and Management: A formal document and plan to guide the CM program that includes items such as: Personnel; Responsibilities and Resources; Training requirements; Administrative meeting guidelines, including a definition of procedures and tools; baselining processes; Configuration control and Configuration status accounting; Naming conventions; Audits and Reviews; and Subcontractor/Vendor CM requirements.
  • Configuration Identification (CI): Consists of setting and maintaining baselines, which define the system or subsystem architecture, components, and any developments at any point in time. It is the basis by which changes to any part of a system are identified, documented, and later tracked through design, development, testing, and final delivery. CI incrementally establishes and maintains the definitive current basis for Configuration Status Accounting (CSA) of a system and its configuration items (CIs) throughout their lifecycle (development, production, deployment, and operational support) until disposal.
  • Configuration Control: Includes the evaluation of all change requests and change proposals, and their subsequent approval or disapproval. It is the process of controlling modifications to the system's design, hardware, firmware, software, and documentation.
  • Configuration Status Accounting: Includes the process of recording and reporting configuration item descriptions (e.g., hardware, software, firmware, etc.) and all departures from the baseline during design and production. In case of suspected problems, the verification of baseline configuration and approved modifications can be quickly determined.
  • Configuration Verification and Audit: An independent review of hardware and software for the purpose of assessing compliance with established performance requirements, commercial and appropriate military standards, and functional, allocated, and product baselines. Configuration audits verify the system and subsystem configuration documentation complies with their functional and physical performance characteristics before acceptance into an architectural baseline.


SDLC Configuration Management
SDLC Configuration Management

The traditional software configuration management (SCM) process is looked upon by practitioners as the best solution to handling changes in software projects. It identifies the functional and physical attributes of software at various points in time, and performs systematic control of changes to the identified attributes for the purpose of maintaining software integrity and traceability throughout the software development life cycle.

The SCM process further defines the need to trace changes, and the ability to verify that the final delivered software has all of the planned enhancements that are supposed to be included in the release. It identifies four procedures that must be defined for each software project to ensure that a sound SCM process is implemented. They are:

  1. Configuration identification
  2. Configuration control
  3. Configuration status accounting
  4. Configuration audits

These terms and definitions change from standard to standard, but are essentially the same.

  • Configuration identification is the process of identifying the attributes that define every aspect of a configuration item. A configuration item is a product (hardware and/or software) that has an end-user purpose. These attributes are recorded in configuration documentation and baselined. Baselining an attribute forces formal configuration change control processes to be effected in the event that these attributes are changed.
  • Configuration change control is a set of processes and approval stages required to change a configuration item's attributes and to re-baseline them.
  • Configuration status accounting is the ability to record and report on the configuration baselines associated with each configuration item at any moment of time.
  • Configuration audits are broken into functional and physical configuration audits. They occur either at delivery or at the moment of effecting the change. A functional configuration audit ensures that functional and performance attributes of a configuration item are achieved, while a physical configuration audit ensures that a configuration item is installed in accordance with the requirements of its detailed design documentation.

Configuration management database

The Information Technology Infrastructure Library, also known as ITIL, specifies the use of a Configuration management system (CMS) / Configuration management database (CMDB) as a means of achieving industry best practices for Configuration Management. CMDBs are used to track Configuration Items (CIs) and the dependencies between them, where CIs represent the things in an enterprise that are worth tracking and managing, such as but not limited to computers, software, software licenses, racks, network devices, storage, and even the components within such items.

The benefits of a CMS/CMDB includes being able to perform functions like root cause analysis, impact analysis, change management, and current state assessment for future state strategy development.

Information assurance

For information assurance, CM can be defined as the management of security features and assurances through control of changes made to hardware, software, firmware, documentation, test, test fixtures, and test documentation throughout the life cycle of an information system. CM for information assurance, sometimes referred to as Secure Configuration Management, relies upon performance, functional, and physical attributes of IT platforms and products and their environments to determine the appropriate security features and assurances that are used to measure a system configuration state. For example, configuration requirements may be different for a network firewall that functions as part of an organization's Internet boundary versus one that functions as an internal local network firewall.

Maintenance systems

Abstract Word Cloud For Configuration Management With Related ...
Abstract Word Cloud For Configuration Management With Related ...

Configuration management is used to maintain an understanding of the status of complex assets with a view to maintaining the highest level of serviceability for the lowest cost. Specifically, it aims to ensure that operations are not disrupted due to the asset (or parts of the asset) overrunning limits of planned lifespan or below quality levels.

In the military, this type of activity is often classed as "mission readiness", and seeks to define which assets are available and for which type of mission; a classic example is whether aircraft on board an aircraft carrier are equipped with bombs for ground support or missiles for defense.

Operating System configuration management

Configuration management can be used to maintain OS configuration files. Example systems include Quattor, CFEngine, Bcfg2, Puppet, Ansible, Vagrant and Chef.

A theory of configuration maintenance was worked out by Mark Burgess, with a practical implementation on present day computer systems in the software CFEngine able to perform real time repair as well as preventive maintenance.

Preventive maintenance

Understanding the "as is" state of an asset and its major components is an essential element in preventive maintenance as used in maintenance, repair, and overhaul and enterprise asset management systems.

Complex assets such as aircraft, ships, industrial machinery etc. depend on many different components being serviceable. This serviceability is often defined in terms of the amount of usage the component has had since it was new, since fitted, since repaired, the amount of use it has had over its life and several other limiting factors. Understanding how near the end of their life each of these components is has been a major undertaking involving labor-intensive record keeping until recent developments in software.

Predictive maintenance

Many types of component use electronic sensors to capture data which provides live condition monitoring. This data is analyzed on board or at a remote location by computer to evaluate its current serviceability and increasingly its likely future state using algorithms which predict potential future failures based on previous examples of failure through field experience and modeling. This is the basis for "predictive maintenance".

Availability of accurate and timely data is essential in order for CM to provide operational value and a lack of this can often be a limiting factor. Capturing and disseminating the operating data to the various support organizations is becoming an industry in itself.

The consumers of this data have grown more numerous and complex with the growth of programs offered by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). These are designed to offer operators guaranteed availability and make the picture more complex with the operator managing the asset but the OEM taking on the liability to ensure its serviceability. In such a situation, individual components within an asset may communicate directly to an analysis center provided by the OEM or an independent analyst.


Cisco Prime Network Change and Configuration Management User Guide ...
Cisco Prime Network Change and Configuration Management User Guide ...

A number of standards support or include configuration management, including:

  • ANSI/EIA-649-1998 National Consensus Standard for Configuration Management
  • EIA-649-A 2004 National Consensus Standard for Configuration Management
  • TechAmerica/ANSI EIA-649-B 2011 Configuration Management Standard
  • ISO 10007:2003 Quality management systems - Guidelines for configuration management
  • Federal Standard 1037C
  • GEIA Standard 836-2002 Configuration Management Data Exchange and Interoperability
  • IEEE 829 Standard for Software Test Documentation
  • 828-2012 IEEE Standard for Configuration Management in Systems and Software Engineering. 2012. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2012.6170935. ISBN 978-0-7381-7232-3. 
  • MIL-STD-973 Configuration Management (cancelled on 20 September 2000)
  • NATO STANAG 4427 Configuration Management in Systems Life Cycle Management including
  • ACMP 2000 Policy on Configuration Management
  • ACMP 2009 Guidance on Configuration Management
  • ACMP 2100 Configuration Management Contractual Requirements
  • CMMI CMMI for Development, Version 1.2 Configuration Management
  • CMII-100E CMII Standard for Enterprise Configuration Management
  • Extended List of Configuration Management & Related Standards


Configuration Management Is Used To Establish And Maintain The ...
Configuration Management Is Used To Establish And Maintain The ...
  • 828-2012 Currently active IEEE Standard which supersedes/supports older ones.
  • MIL-HDBK-61A Configuration Management Guidance 7 February 2001
  • 10007 Quality management - Guidelines for configuration management
  • ACMP 2009 (DRAFT) NATO Guidance on Configuration Management
  • GEIA-HB-649 - Implementation Guide for Configuration Management
  • ANSI/EIA-649-1998 National Consensus Standard for Configuration Management
  • EIA-836 Consensus Standard for Configuration Management Data Exchange and Interoperability
  • ANSI/EIA-632-1998 Processes for Engineering a System
  • MIL-STD-3046 (ARMY) Interim Standard on Configuration Management, 6 March 2013


Desired Configuration Management in SCCM | Yet Another System ...
Desired Configuration Management in SCCM | Yet Another System ...

More recently configuration management has been applied to large construction projects which can often be very complex and have a huge amount of details and changes that need to be documented. Construction agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration have used configuration management for their infrastructure projects. There are construction-based configuration management tools that aim to document change orders and RFIs in order to ensure a project stays on schedule and on budget. These programs can also store information to aid in the maintenance and modification of the infrastructure when it is completed. One such application, ccsNet, was tested in a case study funded by the Federal Transportation Administration (FTA) in which the efficacy of configuration management was measured through comparing the approximately 80% complete construction of the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Agency (LACMTA) 1st and 2nd segments of the Red Line, a $5.3 billion rail construction project. This study yielded results indicating a benefit to using configuration management on projects of this nature.

See also

Configuration Management Procedures Royalty Free Stock Photography ...
Configuration Management Procedures Royalty Free Stock Photography ...
  • Change detection
  • Granular Configuration Automation
  • Comparison of open source configuration management software
  • Dependency
  • List of software engineering topics
  • Netconf
  • Network management
  • Programming tool
  • Revision control
  • Software engineering
  • Interchangeable parts


Product Development Category for Resource CenterTristar – Leader ...
Product Development Category for Resource CenterTristar – Leader ...

Formal training and certification is available for configuration managers.

  • CMPIC Training & Certification The Configuration Management Process Improvement Center
  • Configuration Management Training Foundation (Certified International Configuration Manager CICM / Certified International Software Configuration Manager CISCM / Certified Configuration Management Professional CCMP)
  • Institute of Configuration Management
  • National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) Configuration and Data Manager Certification

Configuration Management Solutions

  • CFEngine
  • Distelli
  • Chef software
  • Ansible (software)
  • Puppet Labs
  • Salt (software)
  • Commando.io


Configuration Management